People have a lot of opinions about dependency and environment management in Python.
Python's been having a moment recently, as more tools are coming out to address problems people have had with
I'm not going to add my own two cents. This is more of a survey of what I've found and read.
In late 2020, Jan Giacomelli did a writeup on the state of dependency and environment management. I won't copy/paste it, but check out the table 2/3rds of the way down that post -- it's a helpful reference to determine what does what.
Then, in early 2021, Frost Ming wrote a couple of pieces on Python Development Master, or PDM, which they've written to capture the vision set out in PEP 582. First, read "You don't really need a virtualenv" which outlines some of the issues with virtual environments that PDM set out to solve. Next, read "A Review: Pipenv vs. Poetry vs. PDM" which is PDM-biased (not surprising, given the author). However, Frost Ming claims in the earlier piece to be a maintainer/contributor to pipenv, so they certainly speak from a position of experience.
What I'm doing
I used to use
venv + pip (technically
virtualenv but that was before
venv shipped with Python), and have recently adopted
pyenv and Poetry. I'll stick with those for a while until I get a chance to play around with PDM.